The history of this institute dates back to 1795 A.D. when the Lunatic Asylum was established in Munghyr near the court premises south of the Ganges River. It was shifted to Patna in November 1821 and was located at Patna Collegiate School. Subsequently the Lunatic Asylum was shifted to present location at Kanke, Ranchi in the last week of April 1925. Nomenclature of Lunatic Asylum was changed to Indian Mental Hospital (IMH). Captain J.E. Dhanjibhay was the first Superintendent of IMH. The male wing started functioning on 4th September 1925 with 110 patients. The female wing started functioning with 53 patients on 19th September 1925. Gradually patients from Dacca (Bangladesh) and Berhampur (Orissa) were transferred here. There were 1226 patients on 31st December 1925.
After Independence this hospital came under State Govt. of Bihar and on 30th August 1958 the name of IMH was changed to Ranchi Mansik Arogyashala (RMA). Patients from the states of Eastern India e.g. Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura were kept here and sanctioned bed strength was 1620. However, patients used to be more than 2000. It was matter of pride that the first MD in Psychiatry was awarded to Dr. L. P. Verma from this institute in 1942. However, since early seventies of the last century there was an overall decline of RMA in care of mental patients, teaching and research. P.G. course in Psychiatry discontinued as one by one faculty member left the institute. PIL was filed in Supreme Court by Mr. Rakesh Chandra Narayan on behalf of mental patients regarding the pathetic condition of inmates of RMA. Supreme Court took note of PIL and in its order dated 8 September 1994 directed Govt. of Bihar to notify RMA as an autonomous institute. Hon’ble Supreme Court also framed the RMA rules and constituted the Management Committee for administrative and financial management of RMA to avoid red-Tapism. Supreme Court Vide its order dated 11-11-1997 entrusted National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) to monitor and supervise the functioning of RMA. On 10th January 1998 the name of RMA was changed to Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry & Allied Sciences (RINPAS).
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